Vivo-Morpholinos enter cells of adult animals

Vivo-Morpholinos enter cells of adult animals


Potentiated Hsp104 variants suppress toxicity of diverse neurodegenerative disease-linked proteins
Meredith E. Jackrel, James Shorter


Protein misfolding is implicated in numerous lethal neurodegenerative disorders including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson disease (PD). There are no therapies that reverse these protein-misfolding events. We aim to apply Hsp104, a hexameric AAA+ protein from yeast to target misfolded conformers for reactivation. Hsp104 solubilizes disordered aggregates and amyloid, but has limited activity against human neurodegenerative disease proteins. Thus, we have engineered potentiated Hsp104 variants that suppress aggregation, proteotoxicity, and restore proper protein localization of ALS and PD proteins in yeast, and mitigate neurodegeneration in an animal PD model. Here, we establish that potentiated Hsp104 variants possess broad substrate specificity and, in yeast, suppress toxicity and aggregation induced by wild-type TDP-43, FUS, and α-synuclein, as well as missense mutant versions of these proteins that cause neurodegenerative disease. Potentiated Hsp104 variants also rescue toxicity and aggregation of TAF15 but not EWSR1, two RNA-binding proteins with a prion-like domain connected with ALS and frontotemporal dementia. Thus, potentiated Hsp104 variants are not entirely non-specific. Indeed, they do not unfold any natively folded protein. Rather, potentiated Hsp104 variants are finely tuned to unfold proteins bearing short unstructured tracts that are not recognized by wild-type Hsp104. Our studies establish the broad utility of potentiated Hsp104 variants.

  • Received February 27, 2014.
  • Accepted July 16, 2014.

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