β-adrenergic receptor activation promotes brown adipose tissue (BAT) β-oxidation and thermogenesis by burning fatty acids during uncoupling respiration. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) can inhibit feeding and stimulate lipolysis by activating the peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor-α (PPARα) in the white adipose tissue (WAT). Here we explore whether PPARα activation potentiates the effect of β3-adrenergic stimulation on energy balance mediated by the respective agonists OEA and CL316243. The effect of this pharmacological association was monitored on feeding, thermogenesis, β-oxidation and lipid/cholesterol metabolism in epididymal (e)WAT. CL316243 (1 mg/kg) and OEA (5 mg/kg) co-administration over 6 days enhanced the reduction of food intake and body weight gain, increased the energy expenditure and reduced the respiratory quotient (VCO2/VO2). This negative energy balance agreed with decreased fat mass and increased BAT weight and temperature, as well as lowered plasma levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, NEFAs and the adipokines leptin and TNF-α. Regarding eWAT, CL316243 and OEA treatment elevated the thermogenic factors PPARα and UCP1, reduced p38-MAPK phosphorylation, and promoted brown-like features in the white adipocytes, as the mitochondrial (Cox4i1, Cox4i2) and BAT (Fgf21, Prdm16) genes were over-expressed in eWAT. The enhancement of the fatty acid β-oxidation factors Cpt1b and Acox1 in eWAT was accompanied with an up-regulation of de novo lipogenesis and a reduction of the unsaturated fatty acid synthesis enzyme Scd1. We propose that the combination of β-adrenergic and PPARα receptor agonists promote therapeutic adipocyte remodelling in eWAT that confer a potential clinical utility for the treatment of obesity.
- Received May 30, 2013.
- Accepted October 19, 2013.
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